Rock garden in Ryoan-ji Zen temple in Kyoto is completely different from gorgeous Japanese gardens (Toji-in) constructed in the Middle Ages. It has no trees, only fifteen rocks, and white gravel. This simple beauty is intended to inspire philosophical meditations.
Imparted from master of discipline, Zen sect of Buddhism was introduced in Japan in the 12th century. It holds that enlightenment is attainable only through zazen (meditation). It focuses on self-discipline and hard work. Zen brought innovations to Japanese poetry, painting, and calligraphy. It introduced tea ceremony and flower arrangement as an art.